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TAG overview

Total greenhouse gas emissions

 

XLS

Total greenhouse gas emissions (Scope 1 and 2 of the GHG Protocol)1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

metric kilotons

 

20062

 

2017

 

20183

 

2019

 

2020
The Group4

 

2020
thereof
Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany

Total CO2eq5 emissions

 

754

 

653

 

636

 

630

 

2,010

 

132

Thereof

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

direct CO2eq emissions (Scope 1)

 

352

 

341

 

332

 

341

 

1,706

 

108

indirect CO2eq emissions6 (Scope 2)

 

402

 

312

 

304

 

289

 

304

 

24

Biogenic CO2 emissions

 

0

 

13

 

13

 

13

 

13

 

0

1

In line with the Greenhouse Gas Protocol, for all previous years (up to the 2006 baseline) greenhouse gas emissions were calculated based on the current corporate structure as of Dec. 31 of the reporting year and retroactively adjusted for acquisitions or divestments of (parts of) companies, or for changes in emission factors (portfolio-adjusted). Exceptions to this are company units that were added as a result of the acquisition of Versum Materials. Figures dating back to the 2006 baseline are not available for these units.

2

Baseline for our emission targets is 2006.

3

Since 2018, our reported figures have excluded the Consumer Health business, which was divested on December 1, 2018.

4

Includes Versum Materials as of 2020. Excluding Versum Materials, our greenhouse gas emissions totaled 563 kilo tons in 2020.

5

eq = equivalent

6

The figures presented here have been calculated in accordance with the market-based method.

Our response to the Carbon Disclosure Project contains a detailed description of our calculation methods.

We have included the following gases in our calculation of direct and indirect CO2eq emissions:

  • Direct CO2 emissions: CO2, HFCs, PFCs, CH4, N2O, NF3, SF6.
  • Indirect CO2 emissions: CO2.

In 2020, we emitted 0.11 kg of CO2eq per euro of net sales.

Other relevant indirect greenhouse gas emissions

XLS

Other relevant indirect greenhouse gas emissions (Scope 3 of the GHG Protocol)1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2017

 

2018

 

2019

 

2020

Total gross other indirect emissions (metric kilotons CO2eq2)

 

328³

 

348³

 

339³

 

308

Fuel- and energy-related emissions, not included in Scope 1 or 2 (category 3)

 

118

 

131

 

127

 

119

Waste generated in operations (category 5)4

 

433

 

473,5

 

503

 

85

Business travel - air travel (category 6)

 

98

 

103

 

86

 

14

Business travel - rail travel (category 6)6

 

0.02

 

0.02

 

0.02

 

0.01

Business travel - rental car travel (category 6)

 

0.6

 

1.4

 

1.3

 

0.2

Employee commuting (category 7)

 

68

 

66

 

75

 

904

Upstream leased assets (category 8)7

 

0.0

 

0.0

 

0.0

 

0.0

Processing of sold products (category 10)8

 

0.0

 

0.0

 

0.0

 

0.0

Downstream leased assets (category 13)

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

Franchises (category 14)

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

1

At present, we only record Scope 3 emissions globally, and not at site or legal entity level. For many categories, local allocations present a significant challenge. Currently the focus is on creating greater transparency with respect to our Scope 3 emissions at Group level. To this end, we are now analyzing emissions for the Scope 3 categories 1, 4 and 10 in particular.

2

eq = equivalent

3

Figure retroactively adjusted.

4

Since 2020, we apply a new calculation approach.

5

Since 2018, this figure has excluded the Consumer Health business, which was divested on December 1, 2018.

6

German Railway

7

Already covered under Scope 1 and 2 emissions

8

We produce a huge variety of intermediate products for various purposes. Due to their many applications and our customer structure, the associated greenhouse gas emissions cannot be tracked in a reasonable fashion.

No data are available for Scope 3 categories not listed above. Their relevance to the Group is assessed in the Scope 3 document.

Biogenic emissions (Scope 3), if present, are not being recorded.

Emissions of ozone-depleting substances

XLS

Emissions of ozone-depleting substances

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

metric tons

 

2017

 

20181

 

2019

 

2020

Total emissions of ozone-depleting substances

 

1.9

 

1.5

 

1.0

 

2.2

CFC-11eq2

 

0.1

 

0.1

 

0.1

 

0.1

1

Since 2018, our reported figures have excluded the Consumer Health business, which was divested on December 1, 2018.

2

CFC-11eq is a unit of measure used to compare the potential of various substances to deplete the ozone. Reference value 1 indicates the potential of CFC-11 to cause the depletion of the ozone layer.

Substances included: R-12, R-22, R-123, R-141b, R-401a, R-402a, R408a, R-409a, R-502, R-503.

Source for the emission factors: Montreal Protocol.

Other air emissions

XLS

Other air emissions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

metric kilotons

 

2017

 

20181

 

2019

 

2020

Volatile organic compounds (VOC)

 

0.3

 

0.3

 

0.3

 

0.3

Nitrogen oxide

 

0.2

 

0.3

 

0.3

 

0.2

Sulfur dioxide

 

0.03

 

0.01

 

0.01

 

0.004

Dust

 

0.04

 

0.01

 

0.01

 

0.010

1

Since 2018, our reported figures have excluded the Consumer Health business, which was divested on December 1, 2018.

The VOC, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, and dust emissions reported here are attributable to production activities as well as energy generation. These figures do not include emissions from vehicles. Emissions are determined partially based on measurements and partially based on calculations or estimates. Only some sites are required to measure individual parameters.

Transport of finished goods, by means of transportation

XLS

Transport of finished goods, by means of transportation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2017

 

2018

 

2019

 

2020

% truck

 

73

 

74

 

70

 

70

% boat

 

15

 

14

 

19

 

22

% airplane

 

12

 

12

 

11

 

8

The figures contain the volumes of the biggest global distribution centers of our Healthcare, Life Science and Performance Materials business sectors. These figures pertain to the total weight of transported products and indicate the primary means of transport.

In shipping finished goods from our production sites to the local warehouses of our subsidiaries, we have been working to reduce the use of air shipping in favor of sea freight. This change aims to both reduce costs as well as lower transport-related CO2 emissions.

Energy consumption

XLS

Energy consumption1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In GWh

 

2017

 

20182

 

2019

 

2020
The Group

 

2020
thereof
Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany

Total energy consumption

 

2,073

 

2,158

 

2,178

 

2,372

 

596

Direct energy consumption

 

1,205

 

1,261

 

1,288

 

1,265

 

529

Natural gas

 

1,140

 

1,194

 

1,222

 

1,178

 

521

Liquid fossil fuels3

 

32

 

33

 

33

 

52

 

8

Biomass and self-generated renewable energy

 

33

 

34

 

33

 

35

 

0

Indirect energy consumption

 

868

 

897

 

890

 

1,107

 

67

Electricity

 

723

 

749

 

745

 

944

 

67

Steam, heat, cold

 

145

 

148

 

145

 

163

 

0

Total energy sold

 

0.1

 

0.0

 

0.1

 

0.2

 

0.0

Electricity

 

0.1

 

0.0

 

0.1

 

0.2

 

0.0

Steam, heat, cold

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In TJ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total energy consumption

 

7,463

 

7,770

 

7,839

 

8,539

 

2,146

Direct energy consumption

 

4,338

 

4,541

 

4,637

 

4,554

 

1,905

Natural gas

 

4,104

 

4,298

 

4,399

 

4,241

 

1,876

Liquid fossil fuels3

 

114

 

119

 

119

 

187

 

29

Biomass and self-generated renewable energy

 

120

 

124

 

119

 

126

 

0

Indirect energy consumption

 

3,125

 

3,229

 

3,202

 

3,985

 

241

Electricity

 

2,603

 

2,696

 

2,682

 

3,398

 

241

Steam, heat, cold

 

522

 

533

 

520

 

587

 

0

Total energy sold

 

0.4

 

0.0

 

0.5

 

0.7

 

0.0

Electricity

 

0.4

 

0.0

 

0.5

 

0.7

 

0.0

Steam, heat, cold

 

0.0

 

0.0

 

0.0

 

0.0

 

0.0

1

In line with the Greenhouse Gas Protocol, for all previous years (up to the 2006 baseline) energy consumption has been calculated based on the current corporate structure as of Dec. 31 of the reporting year and retroactively adjusted for acquisitions or divestments of (parts of) companies, or for changes in emission factors (portfolio-adjusted). Exceptions to this are company units that were added as a result of the acquisition of Versum Materials. Figures dating back to the 2006 baseline are not available for these units.

2

Since 2018, our reported figures have excluded the Consumer Health business, which was divested on December 1, 2018.

3

Light and heavy fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), diesel, biodiesel, gasoline and kerosene

At our sites in Billerica (MA, United States), Bedford (MA, United States), Molsheim (France), Tel Aviv (Israel), Rome (Italy), Guatemala City (Guatemala), Shizuoka-ken (Japan), and Shanghai (China), we use photovoltaics to produce power.

We currently only record purchased secondary energy – this is primarily electricity and, to a lesser extent, heat/steam/cold. Details on the local energy mix, including the respective percentage of primary energy, renewable energy, etc. are not available. Data on local energy efficiency in electricity or heat generation are not available either. Our production sites are located in countries with a widely varying energy mix.

Our Darmstadt and Gernsheim sites in Germany consume the most energy, representing 25% of our Group-wide total. Here, fossil energy (coal, gas, etc.) accounts for approx. 42%, nuclear energy approx. 14% and renewable energies approx. 44% of the energy mix. Renewable energies account for a higher share of electricity generation at production sites in Switzerland, with nuclear energy taking the lead in France. Based on an estimated global energy efficiency of 37% for the conversion and distribution of generated electricity, this results in a primary energy consumption of 2,551 GWh for 2020. Based on an estimated global energy efficiency of 85% for heat/steam/cold, this results in a primary energy consumption of 192 GWh for 2020. This yields a total primary energy consumption of 2,743 GWh for 2020. (The calculation is based on factors stated in the “Manual for energy management in practice - Systematically reducing energy costs” published by DENA, 12/2012.)

In 2020, our energy intensity relative to net sales totaled 0.14 kWh/€.

Water withdrawal

XLS

Water withdrawal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

millions of m3

 

2017

 

20181

 

2019

 

2020
The Group

 

2020
Water stress areas

Total water withdrawal

 

14.0

 

14.7

 

14.0

 

14.2

 

0.7

Surface water (rivers, lakes)

 

1.9

 

2.1

 

1.9

 

1.9

 

0.0

Groundwater

 

7.3

 

7.2

 

6.8

 

6.7

 

0.4

Drinking water (from local suppliers)

 

4.8

 

5.3

 

5.2

 

5.5

 

0.3

Rain water and other sources

 

0.00

 

0.05

 

0.05

 

0.08

 

0.00

1

Since 2018, our reported figures have excluded the Consumer Health business, which was divested on December 1, 2018.

These figures do not include the ground water that we use for safety measures at our Gernsheim site in Germany. Here, the water is fed back directly into natural circulation.

The volume of seawater and produced water withdrawn is not significant and is therefore not reported separately.

Water reused

XLS

Water reused

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

millions of m3

 

2017

 

2018¹

 

2019

 

2020

Water reused

 

22.4

 

24.4

 

23.3

 

22.0

1

Since 2018, our reported figures have excluded the Consumer Health business, which was divested on December 1, 2018.

The recirculating cooling system at our Darmstadt, Germany facility accounts for the majority of reused water as it allows the water to be re-utilized multiple times. The volume of reused water is thus greater than the total volume of consumed water.

Wastewater volume

XLS

Wastewater volume

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2017

 

20181

 

2019

 

2020
The Group2

 

2020
Water stress areas

Total wastewater volume (millions of m3)

 

13.1

 

13.5

 

13.2

 

13.4

 

0.6

Wastewater discharged directly

 

9.0

 

9.6

 

9.3

 

9.2

 

0.4

Wastewater discharged to third parties

 

3.7

 

3.9

 

3.8

 

4.1

 

0.2

1

Since 2018, our reported figures have excluded the Consumer Health business, which was divested on December 1, 2018.

2

In 2020, we optimized the way we measure wastewater at our Gernsheim site. The figures reported no longer include wastewater from the municipality of Biebesheim.

The volume of seawater and groundwater discharged is not significant and is therefore not reported separately.

Discrepancies between total wastewater volume and the sum of directly discharged wastewater and wastewater sent to third parties arise from other disposal methods, which, however, only result in minor amounts of wastewater.

Direct discharges correspond to the “freshwater” classification of the GRI. Indirect discharges correspond to their “other water” classification.

Wastewater quality

XLS

Wastewater quality1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2017

 

20182

 

2019

 

2020

Chemical oxygen demand (metric tons of O2)

 

1,537

 

1,509

 

1,568³

 

2,001

Phosphorous (metric tons)

 

8

 

10

 

12

 

15

Nitrogen (metric tons)

 

234

 

260

 

481

 

291

Nickel (kg)

 

32

 

30

 

32

 

30

Lead (kg)

 

35

 

30

 

34

 

37

Cadmium (kg)

 

6

 

6

 

6

 

6

Mercury (kg)

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

0

1

In alignment with ICCA reporting requirements specified by Cefic, we track heavy metal emissions from lead, cadmium, nickel, and mercury.

2

Since 2018, our reported figures have excluded the Consumer Health business, which was divested on December 1, 2018.

3

Figure retroactively adjusted.

The wastewater treatment plant at our Gernsheim, Germany site also treats wastewater from the neighboring municipality of Biebesheim. The communal wastewater from Biebesheim is included in the emissions stated in the table.

Emissions are determined partially based on measurements and partially based on calculations or estimates. Only some sites are required to measure individual parameters.

These figures reflect the wastewater as it is when it leaves our facilities. Some of the substances in the water are then later removed by third-party purification plants before the water is ultimately discharged into the ecosystem.

Hazardous and non-hazardous waste

XLS

Hazardous and non-hazardous waste

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

metric kilotons

 

2017

 

20181

 

2019

 

2020

Total waste

 

255

 

245

 

244

 

231

Hazardous waste disposed2

 

43

 

44

 

44

 

38

Non-hazardous waste disposed2

 

33

 

54

 

41

 

34

Hazardous waste recycled3

 

72

 

75

 

78

 

89

Non-hazardous waste recycled3

 

107

 

72

 

81

 

70

1

Since 2018, our reported figures have excluded the Consumer Health business, which was divested on December 1, 2018.

2

Disposed = incineration (without energy recovery) and landfill

3

Recycled = incineration (with energy recovery) and material recycling

We generally use external service providers in order to dispose of our waste outside our sites. Some material recycling of hazardous waste takes place directly at our sites (2020: approx. 46 metric kilotons).

Exported/Imported hazardous waste

XLS

Exported/Imported hazardous waste

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

metric kilotons

 

2017

 

20181

 

2019

 

2020

Exported2

 

4.9

 

4.5

 

4.3

 

4.0

Imported

 

0.005

 

0.000

 

0.000

 

0.000

1

Since 2018, our reported figures have excluded the Consumer Health business, which was divested on December 1, 2018.

2

Disposal primarily within the EU and the United States.

In 2020, approx. 3% of hazardous waste was shipped internationally.

Waste by disposal method

XLS

Waste by disposal method

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2017

 

20181

 

2019

 

2020

Total waste (metric kilotons)

 

255

 

245

 

244

 

231

Disposed waste

 

76

 

98

 

85²

 

72

Landfilled waste

 

13

 

35

 

26

 

17

Incinerated waste

 

63

 

63

 

59²

 

55

Recycled waste

 

179

 

147

 

159²

 

159

Material recycling

 

149

 

127

 

132

 

135

Waste-to-energy

 

30

 

20

 

27²

 

24

Recycling rate (%)

 

70

 

60

 

65²

 

69

1

Since 2018, our reported figures have excluded the Consumer Health business, which was divested on December 1, 2018.

2

Figure retroactively adjusted.

As in previous years, the total waste generated continues to be heavily influenced by the waste from construction and remodeling activities. Construction, excavation and demolition waste accounted for 21% of our waste in 2020. Around 37 metric kilotons of construction, excavation and demolition waste was recycled.

We generally use external service providers in order to dispose of our waste outside our sites. Some material recycling of hazardous waste takes place directly at our sites (2020: approx. 46 metric kilotons).

Significant spills

XLS

Significant spills

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2017

 

2018

 

2019

 

20201

Total number of significant spills

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

1

The data include the divested Allergopharma business up to March 31, 2020. See the Report profile for further information.

Information

The current Sustainability Report 2021 can be found here.